Vaginismus: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Vaginismus, or genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD), is a female sexual dysfunction marked by involuntary muscle contractions at the vaginal opening, making penetrative sexual intercourse difficult or impossible, as well as other vaginal penetrations such as finger, tampon/disk/cup, and gynecologic examination. This condition can significantly impact a woman’s physical, emotional, and reproductive health. Women with vaginismus often experience higher levels of depression, anxiety, and limited sexual knowledge. Sociodemographic and clinical factors are associated with vaginismus, but more research is needed to clarify these related factors [Evrim Özkorumak Karagüzel et al., 2016].


The pain and discomfort during intercourse can be distressing, and the emotional repercussions can lead to feelings of shame, inadequacy, and heightened catastrophic pain cognitions [C. Borg et al., 2012]. Vaginismus can strain relationships, hinder gynecological pelvic exams, and pose challenges to natural conception. Anxiety and depression significantly predict health-related quality of life among those suffering from vaginismus [Atefeh Velayati et al., 2021].


There is hope because vaginismus is treatable. Therapist-aided exposure therapy, for instance, has shown efficacy in treating women with lifelong vaginismus [M.T. Ter Kuile et al., 2013]. Additionally, a combination of anxiety management, pelvic floor therapy, counseling, medications, and dilation exercises can offer relief. Recognizing the signs and understanding the condition is crucial for a tailored treatment approach, ensuring that every woman’s unique experience with vaginismus is addressed

What Is Vaginismus?

Vaginismus is a genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of the pelvic floor muscles, which can cause pain or prevent vaginal penetration. This condition can manifest both physically and psychologically. It affects 5% to 17% of women seen in a clinical setting. The emotional needs of patients with vaginismus are significant and must be addressed regardless of the treatment approach chosen [Peter T. Pacik, “Understanding and Treating Vaginismus: A Multimodal Approach”, 2015, Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey].


The condition is often associated with vestibulitis and other dysfunctions that can be exacerbated by stress. Some studies suggest that vaginismus should be viewed more as a description of pathophysiology rather than a strict diagnosis [R. Basson, “Lifelong Vaginismus: A Clinical Study of 60 Consecutive Cases”, 1996, Journal SOGC].


Treatment for vaginismus often involves a combination of physical and psychological factors. Therapist-aided exposure therapy, for instance, is effective for women with lifelong vaginismus [M. T. Ter Kuile et al., “Therapist-aided exposure for women with lifelong vaginismus: a replicated single-case design”, 2009, Journal of Consulting and clinical psychology].


Recognizing and understanding vaginismus is crucial, as with increased awareness among clinicians, there’s hope for better education and treatment approaches in medical settings.

What Are Symptoms of Vaginismus?

Common vaginismus symptoms include:

  • Pain with Penetration: While occasional discomfort can be due to various reasons, consistent or recurrent pain described as a “burning” or “tearing” sensation might indicate vaginismus.
  • Burning Sensation: A burning feeling at the vaginal opening during and after attempting penetration is a common symptom.
  • Difficulty with Penetration: Many women describe it as feeling like they’re ‘hitting a wall’ when attempting intercourse.
  • Challenges with Non-Sexual Penetration: This includes difficulty or inability to insert tampons, menstrual discs, or cups, undergo a gynecological exam, or use a vaginal applicator for medication.
  • Involuntary Muscle Spasms: Especially prevalent when thinking about or attempting penetration.
  • Fear and Anxiety: A pronounced fear, anxiety, or reluctance about vaginal penetration, even if the woman genuinely wants to engage sexually.
  • Concerns about Damage: Fears of causing damage to the vagina or causing it to bleed.
  • Progressive Discomfort: A history of discomfort or pain during intercourse that becomes progressively worse or more frequent over time.
  • Avoidance of Intimacy: Due to the pain and discomfort, many women with vaginismus avoid intimacy and sexual activity

 A study titled “Vaginismus: heightened harm avoidance and pain catastrophizing cognitions” by C. Borg et al. (2012) in the Journal of Sexual Medicine highlights the significant role of heightened catastrophic pain cognitions in women with vaginismus. This study sheds light on the psychological aspects of the condition, emphasizing the importance of addressing both physical and emotional symptoms for effective treatment.

What Does Vaginismus Feel Like?

Vaginismus is a condition that can cause a range of physical and emotional sensations in women. Descriptions of the sensation can vary, but many women with vaginismus describe the following:  
  • Sharp, Stinging Pain: A sharp, stinging pain or burning sensation is often felt at the vaginal entrance when penetration is attempted.
  • The feeling of a “Wall”: Women often describe feeling like they’re hitting a “wall” at the vaginal entrance when trying to insert something, whether it’s a tampon, menstrual disc, cup, finger, vaginal applicator, or penis.
  • Tightness: A sensation of tightness around the vaginal area is commonly reported.
  • Involuntary Muscle Contractions: Some women may not necessarily feel pain, but they experience an involuntary tightening of the vaginal muscles that prevents penetration.
  • Discomfort or Soreness: General discomfort or soreness in the area can persist, even after the triggering event (like an attempt at intercourse) has stopped.
  • Emotional Responses: Emotional responses such as anxiety, fear, panic, and over-attention to sensations in the vagina and genitals can occur when or after attempting vaginal penetration.
The exact sensations can vary based on the severity of the condition and the woman’s level of anxiety. Some women may only experience discomfort with certain triggers (like intercourse) but not others (like tampon insertion), while others may find any form of penetration to be painful and distressing.

How to Know if You Have Vaginismus

While it’s essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis, here are some signs that might indicate you have vaginismus:  
  • Inability to use a tampon: If you’ve never been able to insert a tampon, despite trying with guidance from others.
  • Fear of Intercourse: An apprehension or thought like “What if intercourse hurts?” is noteworthy. A woman without vaginismus might think, “If it hurts, I’ll figure it out.”
  • Issues with Medication Application: You have or have had a vaginal infection and can’t insert the applicator for medicated cream, it might be a symptom.
  • Difficulty with Fingering: If you’re keen on engaging sexually but find that your partner can’t insert a finger, it’s a potential sign.

What Should You Do if You Suspect You Have Vaginismus?

If you have the above listed symptoms of vaginismus, you should:

  • Educate Yourself: Do an Internet search about the condition for proper education, and to find vaginismus specialists in your area, or consider a travel treatment program.
  • Consult with Healthcare Providers: Some women choose to validate their diagnosis by consulting with a gynecologist, a physical therapist specializing in the pelvic floor, or a sex therapist.
  • Open Up About It: Vaginismus is a medical condition, not a personal failing. Talking about it can help you find resources and emotional support.
  • Join a Support Group: Engaging with a vaginismus support group can provide valuable insights and encouragement.

What Are The Causes of Vaginismus?

Vaginismus is a condition where involuntary muscle contractions prevent vaginal penetration, often causing discomfort or pain. The exact causes of vaginismus can vary, but it is primarily linked to underlying anxiety that translates into a vaginal panic, often without the woman being aware of this reaction. 


Here are some potential triggers or causes of vaginismus:

  • Anxiety and Fear: The genitals are connected to our sympathetic nervous system, responsible for the Fight-or-Flight response. This makes it understandable why there might be a ‘closing of the vagina’ response when anxiety or fear about penetration arises.
  • Fear of Pain: Some women fear pain due to stories from friends or others about painful intercourse.
  • Fear of the Unknown: Concerns about how penetration will feel, how they will react, or if they will like it can be triggering.
  • Religious Taboos: Some religious beliefs and teachings can inhibit sexual activity.
  • Misunderstandings About the Vagina: Since the vagina is an invisible body part, it can lead to misconceptions and fears. Some women might worry about causing damage inside.
  • Past Negative Experiences: Previous discomforts, such as infections or rough partners, can lead to fear of future pain.
  • Misconceptions about Sex: Misunderstandings or myths about sex and sexuality can contribute.
  • Inability to Refuse Unwanted Sex: Not being able to say “no” can lead to negative experiences and fears.
  • Over-Protectiveness: Overprotective parenting can limit a person’s ability to deal with challenges related to intimacy.
  • Sexual Abuse and Sexual Trauma: Contrary to common belief, sexual trauma is the least cause of vaginismus.  When it is the underlying reason, it can lead to vaginismus as a protective response against further distress, though it’s not the sole cause. Some women with vaginismus have experienced trauma, but many have not, emphasizing the multifaceted origins of the condition. 

A woman with vaginismus has a strained relationship with her vagina and struggles to use it in what might be considered a “normal” way.


A study titled “Vaginismus: A Review of the Literature on the Classification/Diagnosis, Etiology, and Treatment” by Marie-Andrée Lahaie et al. (2010) suggests that vaginismus cannot be easily differentiated from dyspareunia and should be approached from a multidisciplinary perspective. This emphasizes the complexity of the condition and the importance of a comprehensive understanding and approach to treatment.


For a deeper understanding, you can watch the video titled “What is Vaginismus?” which delves into the intricacies of the condition.

What Are The Early Signs of Vaginismus?

Recognizing the early signs of vaginismus can be crucial for seeking timely intervention and support. 

Here are some of the early signs of vaginismus:

  • Difficulty with Vaginal Penetration: Experiencing an inability or significant difficulty with vaginal penetration, such as during sexual intercourse or when trying to insert a tampon.
  • Fear of Touching Genitals: A pronounced apprehension or fear of touching one’s own genitals.
  • Reluctance to Use Vaginal Dilators: Feeling anxious or fearful about trying vaginal dilators, which are tools used in the treatment of vaginismus.
  • Avoidance of Vaginal Use: Making excuses for not using the vagina or avoiding situations that might involve vaginal penetration.
  • Anxiety about Intimacy: Feeling anxious or apprehensive about sexual intimacy.
  • Genital Hygiene Concerns: Struggling to engage in proper genital hygiene due to discomfort or fear.
  • Avoiding Intimate Relationships: Avoiding intimate relationships due to concerns about the vagina not functioning “normally”.
  • Fear of Gynecological Exams: Being afraid to see a gynecologist for routine or medical care because of anticipated pain or discomfort.

A study titled “The role of anxiety in vaginismus: a case-control study” by Gayle Watts and D. Nettle (2010) in the Journal of Sexual Medicine suggests that anxiety may play a significant role in the symptoms of vaginismus. This aligns with the understanding that vaginismus is often linked to underlying anxiety, which can manifest as a vaginal panic response.

What Are The Types of Vaginismus?

There are primarily two types of vaginismus: Primary Vaginismus and Secondary Vaginismus.

Primary Vaginismus

Primary vaginismus refers to a condition where a woman has never been able to achieve vaginal penetration without pain, including sexual intercourse. This means she has always experienced pain from her first attempt at intercourse or even from trying to insert a tampon.


The causes of primary vaginismus are linked to anxiety or fear related to penetration. This can be due to factors such as: 

  • Fear of pain or the unknown related to penetration.
  • Religious or cultural beliefs that make sexual activity taboo or sinful.
  • Misconceptions about the vagina or sexual activity.
  • Past traumatic experiences or negative messages about sex.

Treatment for primary vaginismus involves a combination of pelvic floor physical therapy, counseling and sex therapy, and relaxation techniques. This might include the use of vaginal dilators, guided exercises, and therapy to address any underlying psychological concerns.

Secondary Vaginismus

Secondary vaginismus occurs when a woman who previously had pain-free penetrative experiences begins to experience pain or difficulty with penetration. This can be triggered by various factors, often later in life.

The onset of secondary vaginismus can be due to:

  • Medical conditions or surgeries that affect the genital area.
  • Traumatic experiences, such as childbirth or sexual assault.
  • Onset of menopause leading to vaginal dryness.
  • Psychological factors, such as relationship issues or significant life stressors.

Treatment approaches for secondary vaginismus are similar to primary vaginismus but with emphasis on the actual cause of the problem. They involve addressing the physical and psychological components of the condition. This can include pelvic floor therapy, counseling, lubricants, or estrogen therapies for postmenopausal women.

What Is The Relationship Between Vaginismus and Painful Sexual Intercourse?

Vaginismus and painful intercourse (dyspareunia) are both conditions that can cause discomfort during vaginal penetration, but they are distinct in their origins and manifestations.


Vaginismus is characterized by the involuntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, making vaginal penetration difficult or impossible. It is often linked to anxiety or fear related to penetration. Women with vaginismus might be able to have penetrative sex, but it often comes with pain and distress.   A study titled “Vaginal Spasm, Pain, and Behavior: An Empirical Investigation of the Diagnosis of Vaginismus” by E. Reissing et al. (2004) emphasizes the role of pain and fear of pain, pelvic floor dysfunction, and behavioral avoidance in the experience of vaginismus.  

Painful Intercourse (Dyspareunia):

Dyspareunia specifically refers to painful sexual intercourse, and not to the other vaginal penetrations. Dyspareunia has various causes, including infections, hormonal changes, or physical conditions. Vaginismus is one of the causes of dyspareunia, but not all cases of painful intercourse are due to vaginismus.   While all individuals with vaginismus will experience dyspareunia when attempting penetration, not everyone with dyspareunia has vaginismus. It’s essential to understand the specific cause of painful sex to address it effectively.

How Is Vaginismus Diagnosed?

Diagnosing vaginismus involves a combination of clinical evaluation and understanding the patient’s history. Here are the methods commonly used to diagnose vaginismus:  
  1. Examination of Medical and Sexual History: A detailed medical and sexual history is taken to understand the patient’s symptoms, sexual history, and any past traumatic experiences or surgeries.
  2. Physical Examination: A gynecological examination can help identify involuntary muscle contractions. However, for some women with vaginismus, a traditional examination might be challenging due to the pain or discomfort, and many will avoid seeing a gynecologist.
  3. Q-tip Test: Although a popular test for diagnosing vaginismus, in actuality this Q-tip test is not indicative because any women with any vaginal concern will be reactive to such poking.  
  4. Pelvic Floor Muscle Assessment: This is another false diagnostic tool because any woman with vaginismus, or any other vaginal concern, will exhibit pelvic floor muscle guarding upon attempted penetration in anticipation of pain.  Furthermore,  ‘measuring’ the level of muscle contraction is not objectively possible nor is it indicative of the severity of vaginismus.
  5. Psychological Evaluation: Since vaginismus has a psychological component, assessing anxiety, fear, or past traumatic experiences can be beneficial.
  6. Differentiating from Other Conditions: It’s important to differentiate vaginismus from other sexual pain disorders, such as dyspareunia or provoked vestibulodynia. A study titled “Can Fear, Pain, and Muscle Tension Discriminate Vaginismus from Dyspareunia/Provoked Vestibulodynia?” by Marie-Andrée Lahaie et al. (2015) emphasizes the challenges health professionals face in reliably differentiating vaginismus from other conditions.
  7. Patient’s Description: Typically, the patient’s description of their symptoms, such as the feeling of “hitting a wall” during penetration or the inability to insert a tampon, can indicate vaginismus.
You must approach the diagnosis of vaginismus with sensitivity and care, considering the emotional and psychological distress associated with vaginismus. If you suspect you have vaginismus, it’s important to consult with a healthcare provider who can provide a comprehensive evaluation and guide you toward appropriate treatment.

What are the Treatment Options for Vaginismus?

Various vaginismus treatment options are available to address the condition’s physical and emotional components:  

Dilation Therapy for Vaginismus

Dilation therapy involves the use of dilators of increasing sizes to help the woman become accustomed to vaginal penetration. The focus is on teaching the woman about her anatomy, reducing associated fears, and automating vaginal penetrations. Dilation can be self-administered or guided by a specialist.  

Relaxation Techniques 

Given that vaginismus is rooted in anxiety, relaxation techniques can help reduce overall stress and anticipatory anxiety, perhaps even as it  relates to penetration. Techniques might include deep breathing, meditation, or guided imagery.   

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy 

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be instrumental add-on to treating vaginismus. It involves education about the condition, challenging negative beliefs, and incorporating relaxation techniques. Homework assignments might also be given to practice learned skills.  

Pelvic Floor Exercises for Vaginismus

Kegel exercises involve tightening and relaxing the pelvic floor muscles. While they can promote vaginal awareness, they are not a treatment for vaginismus. This is because the involuntary contractions associated with vaginismus are different from the muscle tightening that Kegel exercises address.  


Surgical intervention is rarely needed. It’s typically considered if there’s an anatomical cause, like an unusually thick hymen that cannot be broken or disintegrated manually.  


Botox injections can be used to relax the tight vaginal muscles. However, it’s essential to note that while Botox can offer temporary relief, it might not address the underlying anxiety associated with vaginismus.  

Partner-Assisted Contribution

Involving the partner in the treatment process can be beneficial. This might include education, counseling, and open communication to foster understanding and support.  

Psychosexual Therapy for Vaginismus 

Individual psychotherapy and/or sexual therapy can address many components of the underlying anxiety of vaginismus through education, challenging negative beliefs, relaxation techniques, sexual education, and counseling.  

Natural Remedies for Vaginismus

Vaginismus is primarily an anxiety-based psychosomatic (body-mind) reaction. As such, there aren’t any natural remedies that can directly address or cure the condition. Overcoming vaginismus requires specific emotional and physical care.  

Herbs for Vaginismus

To date, there are no specific herbs identified as effective treatments for vaginismus. It’s crucial to approach herbal treatments with caution, as many have not undergone rigorous clinical trials to determine their efficacy and safety for this condition.  

Essential Oils for Vaginismus Relief

Essential oils can relieve symptoms associated with vaginismus, such as anxiety and stress. However, they are not a cure for the condition itself. It’s vital to ensure that essential oils are never applied directly to the vagina or vulva, as they can irritate. Always dilute essential oils with a carrier oil like jojoba or coconut oil before use. Furthermore, essential oils should not replace medical treatments but can be used as a complementary approach.  

Vaginal Massage for Vaginismus

Vaginal massage is sometimes recommended to relax the tight muscles associated with vaginismus. However, it’s important to understand that the muscle fibers causing the vaginal opening to tighten are mostly involuntary. The Fight-or-Flight reaction in response to stress, anxiety, or fear of penetration activates these fibers. As a result, while vaginal massage might offer temporary relief, it may will provide a lasting solution.  

See more on vaginismus treatment.

Lifestyle Changes for Vaginismus

Making certain lifestyle adjustments can be beneficial for individuals dealing with vaginismus. These include:
  • Modified Sexual Intimacy: It’s advisable to stay sexually active but avoid penetrative intercourse until vaginismus is addressed and intercourse becomes feasible.
  • Psychosexual Therapy: This therapeutic approach can assist in comprehending and altering the emotions that cause the body to react in this manner. It can also impart various relaxation techniques. The previously mentioned study titled “Cognitive-behavioral therapy for women with lifelong vaginismus: Process and prognostic factors” by Ter Kuile et al., 2007 concluded that techniques such as gradual exposure, which aim to decrease avoidance behavior and penetration fear, are significant in treating lifelong vaginismus.
  • Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Engaging in yoga, meditation, and controlled breathing can help alleviate the anxiety and stress that might contribute to vaginismus.
  • Healthy Lifestyle: Embracing a balanced diet, regular exercise, and limiting the intake of alcohol and caffeine can help mitigate stress and foster overall well-being.
  • Open Communication: For those in relationships, discussing the condition with their partner can be immensely beneficial. This can alleviate guilt or inadequacy, and the partner can offer support throughout the healing process.

Healthy Diet for Vaginismus

A nutritious diet is pivotal for overall health and can indirectly aid in managing vaginismus by promoting a balanced physical and mental state.

Stress Management for Vaginismus

Managing stress can be an effective strategy for calming down the underlying anxiety of vaginismus. Some techniques to consider include:
  • Mindfulness and Relaxation Techniques: Engaging in mindfulness practices and meditation can help reduce stress and foster a deeper connection with one’s body.
  • Breathing Exercises: Deep, diaphragmatic breathing can promote relaxation and alleviate anxiety. Practicing these exercises daily can be beneficial.
  • Healthy Lifestyle Choices: Regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and adequate sleep can reduce stress and well-being.
  • Social Support: Joining support groups or online forums can help reduce feelings of isolation. Sharing experiences and coping mechanisms can be therapeutic. For instance, the “Private Pain” group on Facebook offers a platform for individuals to connect and share their experiences.
  • Medical Consultation: Often, anti-anxiety medications will be prescribed to manage the underlying anxiety that caused vaginismus. It’s essential to discuss this with a healthcare professional.

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A part of me had thought I’d have vaginismus forever. Then, once I heard of it being curable, I assumed that just meant doable as in I’d be able to tolerate intercourse. Or at least let him in to do his thing then move on. I had no idea that – once cured - it wouldn’t just be doable but ENJOYABLE. You’ve totally revamped our marriage after being together a decade. It’s like we are 2 high schoolers all over again and can’t get enough of it.

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